Monday, March 31, 2014

Use the FETCH Command to Minimize Your Measurement Time

Hi everyone,

I am back again with another programming tip for you.  A neat feature on some of our products that many people many not know about is the ability to fetch measurements from a previous acquisition.  Quite a few of our power supplies and loads (the N6700 modules, the N7900 APS power supplies, the 681xB AC Sources, the N3300 loads, and probably some others that I am probably forgetting) have the ability to acquire voltage and current measurements at the same time.  This is done using the FETCH command (in my little example snippets I use the SCPI short form of FETC).  In a previous blog post I used this command to read back an array of current measurements (see Inrush Current Measurements).  In that command, I use a FETCH command to retrieve a triggered measurement.  

There is another, very useful way to use the FETCH commands.  I am not really sure what the best way to phrase it so I am going to take a shot and then illustrate with an example.  When you send a measure command (say for voltage), the measurement system will also acquire the other measurement (in this case current) and you can send a FETCH command to retrieve that acquired data.   Here is a very small example with some comments (all these commands tested on a N7952A Advanced Power System):

Example Snippet 1:
MEAS:VOLT? -> This will start a new acquisition and take the measurements 
<read back the voltage measurement data>
FETC:CURR? -> This will return the current measured during the voltage measurement above
<read back fetched current measurements>

Since we have voltage and current measurements, the instrument can calculate power:
FETC:POW? -> P=V*I
<read back calculated power>

Please note that you can do this with arrays as well. 

How can this save me time in my program you ask?  Well these power supplies all have built in digitizers that you can access with some programming commands.  The default measurement (at 60 Hz line frequency) is 3255 points measured at 5.12 us per point.  That is a total measurement time of  16.67 ms.  You have the ability to change this to fit your needs though.  You can measure up to 512 Kpoints at up to 40,000 s per point.  Every time you send a measure command you need to wait for the measurement to complete.  For instance:

Example Snippet 2:
MEAS:VOLT?
<read back the voltage measurement data> 
MEAS:CURR? 
<read back the current measurement data>

You will need to wait for two acquisition periods because you are initiating two separate measurements.  In the first example snippet, only the MEAS:VOLT? is initiating a measurement, the FETC:CURR is just reading data out of the instrument.    The downside is that the data that you fetch is going to be of the same age as the last measurement you did so if you need something newer, you need to do a new measurement.  Overall though I think that FETCH is a very useful command.  

I hope people find this useful.  Let us know if you have any questions by using the comments.  

Friday, March 28, 2014

What is a floating power supply output?

First let me tell you that a floating power supply output is NOT what is shown below in Figure 1 (haha).


Now some background: earth ground is the voltage potential of the earth and to greatly reduce the risk of subjecting a person to an electrical shock, the outer covering (chassis) of most electrical devices is internally connected to a wire that is connected to earth ground usually through the power cord. The idea here is to ensure that all surfaces a person can touch are at the same voltage potential; namely, the one that he is standing on: earth ground. As long as that is true, the person can freely touch things without the risk of getting shocked due to two of the things he touches at the same time being at different voltage potentials, or one of the things being at a high voltage potential with respect to the earth. If the voltage difference is high enough, the person could be shocked. Earth grounding the chassis also protects the user if there is an internal problem with an electrical device causing its chassis to inadvertently come in contact with an internal high voltage wire. Since the chassis is earth grounded, an internal short to the chassis is really a short to ground and will blow a fuse or trip a circuit breaker to protect the user instead of putting the chassis at the high voltage. If you touched a chassis that had a high voltage with respect to ground on it, your body completes the path to ground and you get shocked!

So to protect the user (and for some other reasons), the chassis of Agilent power supplies are grounded internally through the ground wire (the third wire) in the AC input line cord. Additionally, most if not all of our Agilent power supplies have isolated (floating) outputs. That means that neither the positive output terminal nor the negative output terminal is connected to earth (chassis) ground. See Figure 2.


Figure 3 shows an example of non-floating outputs with the negative output terminal grounded.


For floating DC power supplies, the voltage potential appears from the positive output terminal to the negative output terminal. There is no voltage potential (at least, none with any power behind it) from either the positive terminal to earth ground or from the negative output terminal to earth ground. A power supply with a floating output is more flexible since, if desired, either the positive or negative terminal (or neither) can be connected to earth ground. Some devices under test (DUT) have a DC input with either the positive or negative input terminal connected to earth ground. If one of the power supply outputs was also internally connected to earth ground, when connected to the DUT, it could short out the power supply output. So power supplies with floating output terminals (no connections to earth ground) are more versatile.

If the outputs are floating from earth ground, we need to specify how far above or below earth ground you can float the output terminals. Our power supply documentation provides this information. For example, most Agilent power supply output terminals can float to +/-240 Vdc off of ground. You will frequently see the following in our documentation:


Also, some power supplies have different float ratings for the positive and negative output terminals. For example, for Agilent N5700 models rated for more than 60 Vdc, the following note in the manual means you can float the positive output terminal up to +/-600 Vdc from ground or the negative output terminal up to +/-400 Vdc from ground:


The output characteristic table may list this as “Output Terminal Isolation” as shown below which means the same thing as maximum float voltage:


Figure 4 shows an example of floating a power supply to 200 V above ground. The power supply output is set to 40 V.


You can see from the last example that you have to take the power supply output voltage into consideration when ensuring you are not violating the float voltage rating. If you exceed the float voltage rating of the power supply, you are potentially exceeding the voltage rating of internal parts that could cause the internal parts to fail or break down and present a shock hazard, so don’t violate the float voltage rating!

Tuesday, March 18, 2014

Quickly implementing several automotive electrical disturbances based on the ISO 16750-2 standard

In my previous posting “Upcoming software release unleashes the N7900 APS’s potential without any programming” <click here to review> I shared that we are updating our 14585A Control and Analysis software to now work our N7900A Advanced Power System (APS) so that one can quickly implement complex power-related testing without resorting to programming. One of many things the N7900A APS is very well suited for is performing a variety of automotive electrical disturbances, due to its higher power output, relatively fast output slew rates, and ability to store and run 64,000 point ARB waveforms. Offsetting this, until now, is it required a bit of programming effort to create, load, and run such ARB waveforms on an N7900A APS. In comparison, the 14585A has a pretty comprehensive library of ARB waveforms, lets you import and edit ARB files (for example, you capture an actual crank waveform profile with an oscilloscope), as well as create a mathematical expression for an ARB waveform. On top of that individual ARB waveforms can be tied together to create larger, much more complex ARB sequences. This is excellent for creating a variety of automotive electrical disturbances.

My first project here was to see how well I could do with implementing a number of electrical disturbances for testing automotive electrical and electronic equipment, based on the ISO 16750-2 standard.   I figured I would start with something easy and work my way up to more challenging ones from there. The first one was “4.5.1 Momentary drop in supply voltage”. This simulates a 0.1 second drop due to an electrical load suddenly short-circuiting followed by its fuse blowing open. In this case I used the pre-defined pulse ARB waveform, set up as shown in the 14545A ARB configuration screen in Figure 1.



Figure 1: Setting up ISO 16750-2 4.5.1 Momentary Drop in Supply Voltage in 14585A Software

The standard calls for under 10 milliseconds fall and rise times. The N7951A 20 volt APS provided about 0.4 millisecond fall and rise times and I was able to also use the slew control to set it slower if I desired.  Alternately I could have used ramp ARBs and enter the ramp times there. The resulting momentary drop was captured in the 14585A’s scope mode of operation, shown in Figure 2.



Figure 2: Capturing ISO 16750-2 4.5.1 Momentary Drop in Supply Voltage in 14585A Software

Next I decided to see how well I could do with implementing “4.5.2 Reset behavior at voltage drop”. This consists of a series of 5 second-long voltage drops spaced 10 seconds apart, increasing by an additional 5% drop in amplitude each time. This tests the DUT to see at what voltage drop level it takes to cause the DUT to reset due to low voltage. For this I linked 20 voltage drop ARB waveforms together in a longer sequence, in the 14585A software. Due to the longer duration the results of running this ARB sequence were instead captured in the 14585A’s data logging measurement mode, shown in Figure 3.



Figure 3: Capturing ISO 16750-2 4.5.2 Reset Behavior at Voltage Drop in 14585A Software

OK, I think I am up for a bigger challenge, and the ISO 16750-2 ”4.5.3 starting profile” looked to be just right to take on. This is a combination of a series of voltage ramps slewing milliseconds to 10’s of milliseconds at the beginning and end with a seconds-long period of a sine wave superimposed on DC embedded in the middle, to emulate the actual steady-state cranking portion.  As there are multiple versions of this starting profile, I selected one with an extended cranking period, as I figured that one would be the more challenging for fast details to be reproduce accurately. I implemented this in the 14585A ARB generation screen, using a combination of two ramps, a sine wave, and another ramp, as shown in Figure 4.



Figure 4: Setting up ISO 16750-2 4.5.3 Starting Profile in 14585A Software

I captured the results of the ISO 16750-2 ”4.5.3 starting profile” I created in the 14585A’s oscilloscope measurement mode, which is shown in Figure 5.



Figure 5: Capturing ISO 16750-2 4.5.3 Starting Profile in 14585A Software

Overall it appears to be good in Figure 5. The cranking sine wave superimposed on the DC is as it should be. I expanded the time scale to check to see if the fast slewing ramps at the beginning and end were also as expected, the beginning transient portion of the profile shown in Figure 6.



Figure 6: Capturing ISO 16750-2 4.5.3 Starting Profile in 14585A Software, Beginning Details

I was really pleased to see the timing of these milliseconds-long events were spot-on even when being just a small part of a seconds-long total ARB sequence. And because the ARB sequences are constructed with high level models it is an easy matter to make changes as well as quickly construct new or non-standard disturbances. This software took the challenge out of me trying to manually program these complex arbitrary automotive electrical disturbances.  While I like taking on challenges, with how quick and easy the 14585A software made this task become, in this case I didn’t mind it haven taken the challenge out one bit!

Monday, March 10, 2014

Upcoming software release unleashes the N7900 APS’s potential without any programming

Our N7900A Advanced Power System (APS) is well named, being the most advanced power product we’ve introduced to date. In many ways it is based on our N6700 series modular DC power system and N6705B DC power analyzer, incorporating their capabilities, including:
  • High precision programming and measurement
  • Seamless measurement ranging
  • High speed measurement digitization of voltage, current, and power
  • Long term data logging of voltage, current, and power
  • Output ARB and List capabilities
  • And quite a bit more


In addition the N7900A APS brings quite a few new and unique capabilities as well, including:
  • Much greater output power
  • Logic-configurable expression signal routing for advanced custom triggering and control
  • Optional external dissipater unit for full two quadrant operation
  • Optional black box recorder for post-test diagnostics when needed
  • And quite a bit more


To take advantage of these advance capabilities does require a bit of programming, which is to generally be expected for an automated test environment, but in low volume design validation and R&D this can slow down the desired quick time-to-result. The N6705B DC Power Analyzer, in Figure 1, has a full-featured front panel menu and graphical display that lets design validation and R&D users quickly configure and run complex power-related tests on their devices. In comparison, the N6700 series, pictured in Figure 2, does not have all the front panel capabilities of the N6705B and can be looked on as the ATE version of this product platform, requiring programming to take advantage of its advanced capabilities. The N6705B shares all the same DC power modules that the N6700 series uses.



Figure 1: The N6705B DC Power Analyzer, primarily for bench use




Figure 2: The N6700 series Modular DC Power System, primarily for ATE

The N7900A APS is very similar in form and function to the N6700 series, not having all the advanced front panel capabilities that the N6705B has for bench-friendly use of its advanced features. I am really pleased to be able to share with you that this is now changing! While we are not creating a bench version of the N7900 APS, we are upgrading our 14585A Control and Analysis software, which emulates the front panel of an N6705B and more, to work with the N7900 APS as well. The 14585A will soon let you quickly and easily create and configure complex power-related tests based on using the N7900 APS.  I am fortunate enough to be working with a beta version of the software. Some examples of things I was able to do in just a few minutes were to capture the inrush current of an automotive headlight, shown in Figure 3, and superimpose an AC sine wave disturbance on top of the DC output, shown in Figure 4.




Figure 3: Auto headlamp inrush current captured with 14585A software and N7951A APS




Figure 4: Sine wave voltage disturbance on top of DC generated by 14585A software and N7951A APS

The updated release of the 14585A Control and Analysis software is just a few weeks away. More about the 14585A software can be found by clicking on the following link <14585A>With the 14585A being a great way to implement ideas and tests quickly, using the N7900 APS, look for me and others coming up with some interesting applications in future posts here on “Watt’s Up?”!