## Friday, May 29, 2015

### How to calculate the accuracy of a power measurement

Electrical power in watts is never directly measured by any instrument; it is always calculated based on voltage and current measurements. The simplest example of this is with DC (unchanging) voltage and current: power in watts is simply the product of the DC voltage and DC current:
So the accuracy of the power measurement (which is calculated from the individual voltage and current measurements) is dependent on the accuracy of the individual V and I measurements.

For example, you might use a multimeter to make V and I measurements and calculate power. The accuracy of these individual measurements is typically specified as a percent of the reading plus a percent of the range which is an offset. (Note that “accuracy” here really means “inaccuracy” since we are calculating the error associated with the measurement.)

Let’s use an example of measuring 20 Vdc and 0.5 Adc from which we calculate the power to be 10 W. We want to know the error associated with this 10 W measurement. Looking up the specs for a typical multimeter (for example, the popular Keysight 34401A), we find the following 1-year specifications:

DC voltage accuracy (100 V range): 0.0045 % of reading + 0.0006 % of range
DC current accuracy (1 A range): 0.1 % of reading + 0.01% of range

The error (±) associated with the voltage measurement (20 V) is:
So when the measurement reading is 20.0000 V, the actual voltage could be any value between 19.9985 V and 20.0015 V since there is a 1.5 mV error associated with this reading.

The error (±) associated with the current measurement (0.5 A) is:
So when the measurement reading is 0.5 A, the actual current could be any value between 0.4994 A and 0.5006 A since there is a 0.6 mA error associated with this reading.

We can now do a worst-case calculation of the error associated with the calculated power measurement which is the product of the voltage and current. The lowest possible power value is the product of the lowest V and I values: 19.9985 V x 0.4994 A = 9.98725 W. The highest possible power value is product of the highest V and I values: 20.0015 V x 0.5006 A = 10.01275 W. So the error (±) associated with the 10 W power measurement is ± 12.75 mW.

The above is the brute-force method to determine the worst-case values. It can be shown that the percent of reading part of the power measurement error can be very closely approximated by the sum of the percent of reading errors for the V and I. Likewise, it can be shown that the offset part of the power measurement error can be very closely approximated by the sum of the voltage reading times the current offset error and the current reading times the voltage offset error:
Applying this equation to the example above for the 100 V and 1 A ranges at 20 V, 0.5 A:
So for 10 W, we get:
As you can see, this is the same result as produced by the brute-force approach. Isn’t it great when math works out the way you expect?!?!

In summary, the error associated with a power measurement calculated as the product of a voltage and current measurement has two parts just like the V and I errors: a % of reading part and an offset part. The % of reading part is closely approximated by adding the % of reading parts for the V and I measurements. The offset part is closely approximated by adding two products together: the voltage reading times the current offset error and the current reading times the voltage offset error. It’s as simple as that!

### Should I use RS-232 or GPIB to communicate with my instrument?

Hi everyone,

I am writing this as I am preparing to go to the beach for a week.  My topic today will be short but hopefully useful.    We are going to talk about a subject that has been near and dear to my heart for the past 15 years, serial versus GPIB communication on our instruments.

Back in the days before LAN and USB became instrument standard interfaces, many of our products were designed with RS-232 serial ports in addition to GPIB.  RS-232 is standard on the 681xB AC Source/Analyzers, the E36xxA bench power supplies, the N330xA Electronic loads, as well as a few other products.

RS-232 is an interesting option for communication because it is free, most people have them standard on their computers, and you really only need to buy a reasonably priced cable.  The main drawbacks are the fact that you need to put it in remote mode yourself using the "SYST:REM" command, that reasonably priced cable has to be properly configured, and it is slower than GPIB.  The main drawbacks of GPIB is that it costs more and you need to purchase hardware.

I did some benchmarking this morning using my trusty 6811B AC Source/Analyzer.  I used the proper RS-232 cable and my Keysight 82357B USB to GPIB converter to connect to the 6811B.  I wrote a small program that measures the time to send a "*IDN?" command and receive a response.  The program looped 100 times and calculated the average time.  With GPIB, the average time to send and read back took about 7 ms.  With RS-232, the same send command and read back the response took about 50 ms.

So to answer my titular question, "Should I use RS-232 or GPIB to communicate with my instrument?", my answer in every instance would be to use GPIB.  I know that it is more expensive but you really get what you pay for in this instance.  GPIB is a much faster, more reliable way to communicate with your instruments.

Thanks for reading.  Let us know if you have any questions.

## Friday, May 22, 2015

### New performance options for the N6900A Advance Power System gives greater versatility for your test needs

Our N6900 and N7900 series Advanced Power System (APS) DC power supplies are some of our most sophisticated products, setting new levels of performance and capabilities on many fronts. They come in 1kW and 2kW power levels as shown in Figure 1 and can be grouped together to provide much greater power levels as needed.

Figure 1: N6900 and N7900 Advanced Power System 1kW and 2kW models

Most noteworthy is that these can be turned into full two-quadrant DC sources by connecting up the optional 1kW N7909A Power Dissipator (2 needed for 2kW units) providing 100% power sinking capability. This makes APS an excellent solution for battery, battery management and many alternative energy applications, where both sourcing and sinking power are needed.
• The N6900 series DC power supplies are designed for ATE applications where high test throughput and high performance is critical.
• The N7900 series dynamic DC power supplies are designed for ATE applications where high speed dynamic sourcing and measurement is needed, in additions to high performance.

A lot more about these products is covered in another post on our General Purpose Electronic Test Equipment (GEPTE) blog when they were first announced. This is a great resource for learning more about APS and can be accessed from the following link: “New Advanced Power System: Designed to Overcome Your Toughest Test Challenges”

If you are a regular visitor to the “Watt’s Up?” blog no doubt you have seen we have shared a lot about how to do things with the N6900 series and N7900 series APS to address a number of difficult test challenges. A lot of times it would have otherwise required additional equipment or custom hardware to accomplish these tasks. While many of these examples are suitable for the N6900 and N7900, a good number of times examples make use of the additional capabilities only available in the N7900 series.

In certain test situations the N6900 series APS would be a great solution and lower cost than the N7900 series, if only it also had a certain additional capability. To this end Keysight has recently announced four new performance options for the N6900 series APS to address a specific test need you may have, as follows:
1. Accuracy Package (option 301): Adds a second seamless measurement range for current
2. Measurement Enhancements (Option 302): Adds external data logging and voltage and current digitizers with programmable sample rates
3. Source and Speed Enhancements (Option 303): Adds constant dwell arbitrary waveforms and output list capability, and faster up and down programming speed
4. Disconnect and Polarity-Reversal Relays (Option 760 and 761): Provides galvanic isolation and allows output voltage to be switched between positive and negative values

Additional details about the N6900 series APS and the four new performance options are available from the recent press release, available at the following link: “Keysight Technologies adds Versatile Performance Options to Industry’s Fastest Power Supplies”

With these new options you now have a spectrum of choices in the Advanced Power System product family to better address any test challenges you may be faced with!

## Wednesday, May 20, 2015

### Updates to USB provide higher power and faster charging

For those who regularly visit our blog here are already aware I do a fair amount of work with regard to test methodologies for optimizing battery life on mobile wireless devices. One directly related topic I have been actively investigating these past few months is the battery charging aspects for these devices. Recharging the battery on these devices takes a considerable amount of time; typically a couple of hours or longer, and it’s only been getting worse. However, there has been a lot of work, activity, and even new product developments that are making dramatic improvements in recharging your devices’ batteries in less time!

The USB port has become the universal connection for providing charging power for mobile devices. When initially available a USB port could provide up to 500 mA for general power for peripheral devices. It was recognized that this was also a convenient source for charging portable devices but that more current was needed. The USB BC (battery charging) standard was established which formalized charging initially for up to 1.5 amps at 5 volts.

This higher charging current and power was alright for mobile devices of a couple of generations ago, but today’s smart phones, tablets, and phablets are using much larger and higher capacity batteries. The end result is, because USB is 5 volts its power thus limited to 7.5W, that it can take several hours to recharge a device’s battery.  This can be very inconvenient if your battery goes dead during the day!

Simply increasing the USB current is not a total answer as this has limitations. First, the micro USB connectors on mobile devices are rated for no more than about 1.8 to 2 amps. To help on this front there is the new USB Type-C cable and connector specification released last year. The new type-C micro connectors are able to handle up to 3 amps and the standard connectors able to handle up to 5 amps. Higher current alone is not quite enough. Also issued last year was the new USB Power Delivery 2.0 specification. This specifies a system capable of providing up to 20 volts and 5 amps. This is more than order of magnitude improvement in power over the existing USB power. Long charging times due to power limitations will become a thing of the past.

The new USB power delivery voltages and currents are a discrete set of levels as shown in table 1. As can be seen the levels depend on the profile/port designation.

Table 1: USB power delivery 2.0 voltage and current levels

The cables and connectors of course need to be able to handle the given level of current and power.  In review of the standard a lot of work and effort has gone into providing this new capability while maintaining compatibility with the past as well. Thus for a new mobile device to take advantage of these higher power levels, it must be capable of negotiating with the charging power port to furnish it. At the same time, if an earlier generation mobile device is connected, it will only be able to get the default USB 5 volt level.

I’m looking forward to seeing this new USB power delivery put into wide-spread use in various innovative new products. Expect to see more about this topic in future posts from me here!