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Showing posts with label load effect. Show all posts
Showing posts with label load effect. Show all posts

## Monday, June 10, 2013

### DC power supply output impedance characteristics

In a previous posting; “How Does a Power Supply regulate It’s Output Voltage and Current?” I showed how feedback loops are used to control a DC power supply’s output voltage and current.  Feedback is phenomenally helpful in providing a DC power supply with near-ideal performance. It is the reason why load regulation is measured in 100ths of a percent. A major reason for this is it bestows the power supply, if a voltage source, with near zero impedance, or as a current source, with high output impedance. How does it do this?

The impedance of a typical DC power supply’s output stage (like the conceptual one illustrated in the above referenced posting) is usually on the order of an ohm to a couple of ohms. This is the open-loop output impedance; i.e. the output impedance before any feedback is applied around the output.   If no feedback were applied we would not have anywhere near the load regulation we actually get. However, when the control amplifier provides negative feedback to correct for changes in output when a load is applied, the performance is transformed by the ratio of 1 + T, where T is loop gain of the feedback system. As an example, the output impedance of the DC power supply operating in constant voltage becomes:

Zout (closed loop) = Zout (open loop) / (1+T)

The loop gain T is approximately the gain of the operational amplifier times the attenuation of the voltage divider network. In practical feedback control systems the gain of the amplifier is quite large at and near DC, possibly as high as 90 dB of gain. This reduces the power supply’s DC and low frequency output to just milliohms or less, providing near ideal load regulation performance. Another factor in practical feedback control systems is the loop gain is rolled off in a controlled manner with increasing frequency in order to maintain stability. Thus at higher frequency the output impedance of a DC power supply operating as a voltage source increases towards its open loop impedance value as the loop gain decreases. This is illustrated in the output impedance plots in Figure 1, for the Agilent 6643A DC power supply.

Figure 1: Agilent 6643A 35V, 6A system DC power supply output impedance

As can be seen in Figure 1, for constant voltage operation, the 6643A DC power supply is just about 1 milliohm at 100 Hz, and exhibits an inductive output characteristic with increasing frequency as the loop gain decreases.

As also can be seen in Figure 1, feedback control works in a similar fashion for constant current operation. While a voltage source ideally has zero output impedance, a current source ideally has infinite impedance.  For constant current operation the 6643A DC power supply exhibits 10 ohms impedance at 100 Hz and rolls off in a capacitive fashion as frequency increases. However, for the 6643A, it is not so much the constant current control loop gain dropping off with frequency but the output filter capacitance dominating the output impedance. While the 6643A can be used as an excellent, well-regulated current source (see posting: “Can a standard DC power supply be used as current source?”) it is first and foremost optimized for being a voltage source. Some output capacitance serves towards that end.

An example of one use for the output impedance plots of a DC power supply is to estimate what the amount of load-induced AC ripple might be, based on the frequency and amplitude of the current being drawn by the load, when powered by power supply operating in constant voltage.

## Sunday, March 31, 2013

### Remote sensing can affect load regulation performance

There are other ways in which this effect can be shown in specifications. For example, when remote sensing, the Agilent 667xA Series of power supplies expresses the load regulation degradation as a formula that includes the voltage drop in the load leads, the resistance in the sense leads, and the voltage rating of the power supply. Output voltage regulation is affected by these parameters because the sense leads are part of the power supply’s feedback circuit, and these formulas describe that effect:

When you are choosing a power supply, if you want the output voltage to be very well regulated at your load, be sure to consider all of the specifications that will affect the voltage. Be aware that as your load current  changes, the voltage can change as described by the load effect spec. Additionally, if you use remote sensing, the load effect could be more pronounced as described in the remote sensing capability section (or elsewhere). Be sure to choose a power supply that is fully specified so you are not surprised by these effects when they occur.

## Monday, December 10, 2012

### More on power supply current source-to-sink crossover characteristics

On my earlier posting “Power supply current source-to-sink crossover characteristics” I showed what the effects on the output voltage of a unipolar two-quadrant-power supply were, resulting from the output current on the power supply transitioning between sourcing and sinking. In that example scenario, the power supply was maintaining a constant output voltage and the transitioning between sourcing and sinking current was dictated by the external device connected to and being powered by the power supply. This is perhaps the most common scenario one will encounter that will drive the power supply between sourcing current and sinking current.

Other scenarios do exist that will drive a unipolar two-quadrant power supply to transition between sourcing and sinking output current. One scenario is nearly identical to the earlier posting. However, instead of the device transitioning its voltage between being less and greater than the power supply powering it, the power supply instead transitions its voltage between being less and greater than the active device being normally powered.  A set up for evaluating this scenario on an Agilent N6781A two-quadrant DC source is depicted in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Evaluating current source-to-sink crossover on an N6781A operating in constant voltage

In this scenario having the DC source operating as a voltage source and transitioning between 1.5 and 4.5 volts causes the current to transition between -0.75 and +0.75A.  The voltage and current waveforms captured on an oscilloscope are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Voltage and current waveforms for the set up in Figure 1

The waveforms in Figure 2 are as what should be expected. The actual transition points are where the current waveform passes through zero on the rising and falling edge. An expanded view to the current source-to-sink transition is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Expanded voltage and current waveforms for the set up in Figure 1

As can be seen the voltage ramp transitions smoothly at the threshold point, or zero crossing point, of the current waveform. The reason being is that the DC is maintaining its operation as a voltage source. Its voltage feedback loop is always in control.

Yet one more scenario that will drive a unipolar two-quadrant source to transition between sourcing and sinking current is operate it as a current source and program is current setting between positive and negative values. In this case the device under test that was used is a voltage source.  One real-world example is cycling a rechargeable battery by alternately applying charging and discharging currents to it. The set up for evaluating this scenario, again using an N6781A two-quadrant DC source is depicted in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Evaluating current source-to-sink crossover on an N6781A operating in constant current

For Figure 4 the N6781A was set to operate in constant current and programmed to alternately transition between -0.75A and +0.75A current settings. The resulting voltage and current waveforms are shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: Voltage and current waveforms for the set up in Figure 4

The waveforms in Figure 5 are as what should be expected. The actual transition points are where the current waveform passes through zero on the rising and falling edge. An expanded view to the current source-to-sink transition is shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6: Expanded voltage and current waveforms for the set up in Figure 4

As the N6781A is operating in current priority the interest is in how well it controls its current while transitioning through the zero-crossing point. As observed in Figure 6 it transitions smoothly through the zero-crossing point. The voltage performance is determined by the DUT, not the N6781A, as the N6781A is operating in constant current.

So what was found here is, for a unipolar two-quadrant DC source, transitioning between sourcing and sinking current should generally be virtually seamless as, under normal circumstances, should remain in either constant voltage or constant current during the entire transition.

## Wednesday, September 21, 2011

### What is load effect and how does it affect my testing?

Load effect is a power supply specification (also known as load regulation) that describes how well the power supply can maintain its steady-state output setting when the load changes. More formally, it specifies the maximum change in steady-state DC output voltage (or current) resulting from a specified change in the load current (or voltage), with all other influence quantities maintained constant. So, when a power supply is regulating its output voltage in CV (constant voltage) mode, this specification tells you how much the voltage can change when the current changes. Here is an example:

Let’s say the voltage load effect specification for a 20 V, 5 A power supply is 2 mV and is specified for any load change. This means for any current change within the rating of the supply (in this case, up to 5 A), the output voltage will not change by more than 2 mV. For example, if the power supply is set to 10 V, the actual output may measure 9.999 V with no load (0 A). (Note that the difference between the setting and the actual output voltage is a different specification called programming accuracy.) If you then increase the current from 0 A to a full load condition of 5 A, the load effect specification guarantees that the output voltage will not change by more than 2 mV, so it will be somewhere between 9.997 V and 10.001 V. So if the actual output voltage started at 9.999 V with a 0 A load and measured 9.9982 V with a 5 A load, the load effect for this output when set for 10 V measures 0.8 mV (9.999 – 9.9982), well within the 2 mV specification. You must make the second voltage measurement immediately following the load current change to avoid capturing any short-term drift effects.

In the above example, the specified change in load current was “any load change”. Of course, it is implied that the load change is within the output ratings of the supply. You cannot change the output current from 0 A to 100 A on a 5 A power supply. Some load effect specifications state that the load change is a 50% change (e.g., 2.5 A to 5 A) while others may say 10% to 90% of full load (e.g., 0.5 A to 4.5 A).

And what does “with all other influence quantities maintained constant” mean? Things like temperature and the AC line input voltage can affect the output parameter, so these things must be held constant in order to see only the effect of the load change. The effects on the power supply output of changes in each of these influencing quantities (temperature, AC line input voltage) are described in different specifications.

Most performance power supplies have load effect specifications in the range of just a few hundred uV up to a few mV. A lower performance model may have a load effect specification of between 10 mV and 100 mV. Power supplies with higher maximum voltage ratings and higher maximum power ratings typically have higher load effect specifications.

If you have an application where maintaining an exact voltage at your DUT is critical and your DUT draws different amounts of current at different times, you will want to use a power supply with a low load effect specification. If changes in the voltage at your DUT with changes in DUT current are less critical to you, most power supplies will perform well for your application.